Posta a Punto de Propostas MSCA Fellowships: Revisión de candidaturas - Elena Shakina

ABSTRACT:

Worker-job match as one of the critical conditions of individual productivity and overall firm performance is far from being comprehensively studied. The vast majority of research endeavors fall into two categories: (1) on the macrolevel – structural unemployment conditioned by a temporary mismatch between qualifications of jobseekers and employers’ demand and (2) on microlevel – a separation propensity or insufficient productivity of a particular worker due to its low fit to position requirements or management styles. A seminal paper by Jovanovic (1979) suggests a solid theoretical grounding of job match and associated turnover phenomena. This paper essentially shifted the frontier and was followed by numerous empirical tests like those by Fredriksson et al. (2018); Kiyotaki & Lagos (2007); Sicilian (1995) demonstrating the economic antecedents and consequences of employee quits in light of so-called “permanent separations” and incomplete information. Along with the literature on economic dimensions of job-matching, organizational psychology has been developing theories on the behavioral fit between worker and management styles as well as perceiver expectations and motivation (McGregor, 2006). Originating from the work by Merton (1948), this theory suggests that both positive and negative perceiver expectations determine their performance. The behavioral perspective of job matching refers to self-fulfilling prophecies (so-called "Pygmalion" and" Golem" effects), psychological pressures, manifold discriminations, including gender gap. This continuum of behavioral responses draws up a substantive dimension of job match and mismatch.

In this research project, we propose a comprehensive examination based on theoretical advancements, several empirical tests, and practical implications of job matching mechanisms in both dimensions. We are currently witnessing a dramatic transformation of the job market which translates into substantially shifting roles of agents – jobseekers, workers, employers, mediators, and regulators. The development of online job boards, open peer-review screening platforms, and professional social networks significantly reduce information asymmetry and transaction costs and potentiate market efficiency. Though it leads to higher worker mobility and knowledge spillovers. That ultimately requires the development of a fundamentally new institutional environment.

The combination of economic and behavioral dimensions of job matching turns to the higher relevance due to the following reasons:

(1) Higher job market efficiency evidently mitigates the dominance of purely economic factors and reinforces behavioral factors to predict and interpret job matching parameters

(2) New wage-setting mechanisms occur as a response to structural shifts in the job market making specific skills and individual traits of jobseekers and their fit to employer identity significant drivers of job matching

(3) Job matching becomes more industry- and firm-specific and allows elaborating ad hoc tools to account for these distinctions and making use of vast unstructured data, artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning (ML) for data processing and prescriptive analytics.

 

The objectives of the project are accordingly developed to respond to these challenges:

(1) to measure economic consequences of job match and mismatch and to investigate behavior factors (incl, self-fulfilling prophecies, psychological pressures, discriminative biases) on individual and firm performance

(2) to explore alternative wage-setting mechanisms based on data published on major job boards:

(2.1) predicting the value of the domain and non-domain skills from the demand and supply side,

(2.2) discovering and interpreting behavior factors of gaps and market frictions

(3) to examine and run comparative analytics for various contexts of job markets with presumably specific conditions and to suggest effective AI tools for better job matching outcomes


Seminario de Investigación ECOBAS: Sebastián Cea Echenique (Universidade dos Andes)

Abstract:

Nun modelo de cap and trade con inversión en capacidade de xeración eléctrica en 2 etapas con incertidumbre, incluimos atención limitada por parte do planificador social. A inclusión deste tipo de configuracións xustifícase no feito de que a fixación dun cap preciso é costosa. No noso modelo definimos dous tipos de racionalidades de planificador: unha orientada nos beneficios por venta de dereitos e outra enfocada no benestar social. Computamos o modelo para o caso chileno contrastando cos resultados de Amigo et alii (2021) e os cumplimiento de carbono neutralidade en base ao acordo de Paris. Por un lado, os resultados do modelo Profit oriented amosan un impacto significativo da precisión do cap respecto da colocación óptima de dereitos subastados. En paralelo, esta configuración entrega os prezos de electricidade máis baixos entre todos os modelos. Por outro lado, a configuración Welfare oriented emite a me­nor cantidade de permisos para altos orzamentos de carbono.


Seminario de Investigación ECOBAS: Diego Puga (Centro de Estudios Monetarios y Financieros)

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Abstract: We develop an urban growth model where human capital spillovers foster entrepreneurship and learning in heterogeneous cities. Incumbent residents limit city expansion through planning regulations so that commuting and housing costs do not outweigh productivity gains. The model builds on strong microfoundations, matches key regularities at the city and economy-wide levels, and generates novel predictions for which we provide evidence. It can be quantified relying on few parameters, provides a basis to estimate the main ones, and remains transparent regarding its mechanisms. We examine various counterfactuals to assess the effect of cities on economic growth and aggregate income quantitatively.


Seminario de Investigación ECOBAS: Brais Álvarez Pereira - UNova (Lisboa)

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Does lack of information reduce the ability of producers to find the right time to sell their products? To answer this question, we ran a two-level cluster randomized control trial among 1988 cashew producers in 290 villages in Guinea-Bissau. Treated producers received weekly messages to their mobiles during the trading season in 2020. The messages provided up-to-date market news, farmgate prices, and gave marketing advice. We found that treated producers sold their cashews more frequently relative to the producers in other experimental groups, who tend to sell their cashews in a single transaction. Treated producers failed to earn higher prices, but earned more from all sales and barters, relative to the control group mean. We explore several mechanisms to understand our results. We found no evidence suggesting that treated producers changed their buyers, the location of their sales, had more bargaining power, better record keeping, or different attitudes towards risk. Given the low cost of our intervention, market information can be a cost-effective tool to increase producers’ revenues.


Seminario de Investigación ECOBAS: Javier López Prol - Yonsei University (Corea do Sur)

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Opposite to traditional dispatchable technologies, wind and solar have a variable generation pattern. Due to the particular characteristics of electricity markets, this variability poses challenges to their integration, such as the cannibalization effect (decline of their market value as penetration increases), and curtailment. I will review these problems by presenting their quantification for California, and discuss some of the potential solutions, focusing on the potential benefits of spatial integration and deployment coordination of renewable resources across countries.